Keynote Speakers: Raphaël Dumas
State of the art in biomechanical modelling based on 3D motion analysis
Biomechanical modelling based on 3D motion analysis has become, in recent years, an efficient tool for better understanding the muscle and joint functions (concerning, however, mainly non-pathological gait).
First, a priori knowledge is introduced in motion analysis, in particular to improve the measurement of kinematics. Indeed, it is well known that the movement of the skin markers relative to underlying bone is a major source of error. As compensation, models representing the soft tissue artefact or the behaviour of the joints are implemented in single or multi-body optimisation for bone pose estimation.
Second, musculoskeletal modelling driven by joint kinematics, external forces, and/or electromyographic signals estimates dynamic quantities that are not (or hardly) directly measurable in vivo: musculo-tendinous forces, contact forces, ligament forces. The interactions between the forces and the contributions of the musculo-tendinous forces to progression and support are widely explored.
Third, motion simulation based on experimental data can predict the impact of model modifications, typically altered joint behaviour or limited musculo-tendinous forces, on the 3D movement. Such prediction assumes a minimal modification of some identified control parameters associated to progression and support.
As far as biomechanical modelling is concerned, model personalisation and validation are crucial issues.